ammonia as refrigerant

Manfred Hofmann, expert and head of dka training at ENGIE Refrigeration, says: “NH3, or R717, is one of only a few climate-neutral refrigerants, in that it neither damages the ozone layer nor contributes to the greenhouse effect. You may need a PDF reader to view some of the files on this page. Industrial refrigeration safety is very important. R717 (Ammonia) Ammonia has been used in industrial applications since the 1930s and is generally acknowledged as being the most efficient refrigerant. Today ammonia is primarily used in industrial refrigeration applications: • Distribution cold stores • Freezing tunnels • Breweries • Food processing plants (slaughterhouses, ice cream factories, etc.) Its following salient features are reasons to consider for choosing ammonia as refrigerant of choice: Ammonia’s physical properties make it … Because ammonia’s properties are best suited to large refrigeration systems, there is likely to be a large amount of ammonia in any system that uses it. Because ammonia is very efficient, companies with industrial refrigeration or cooling equipment can save a lot of energy by using more compact equipment. Ammonia as a refrigerant isn’t a new concept. Looking back to the yesteryears, ammonia was commonly used in air conditioning units. As a result, where ammonia refrigeration is appropriate, it can offer lower long-term operation costs. • Fish trawlers. How do these systems work? That kind of accident could cause serious harm to human health. Ammonia (R-717) Refrigeration Service Company. This means that only welded steel pipes can be used. Even a tiny amount in the air will be obvious. By changing the state of the gas, the system also changes its temperature and how much heat it carries. The purity of the anhydrous ammonia is vital to the properties that make it a good refrigerant. Compression refrigerators typically use an HCFC or HFC, while absorption refrigerators typically use ammonia or water and need at least a second fluid able to absorb the coolant, the absorbent, respectively water (for ammonia) or brine (for water). Ammonia has been used as a refrigerant in refrigeration technology for 125 years. The operating pressures of ammonia are comparable to those of other common refrigerants (HFCs and HCs) and it has a relatively high normal boiling point (–33.3 °C). An ammonia smell in your RV typically is due to a refrigeration leak. Indoor ice hockey rinks and grocery store freezer sections use the same process on a larger scale. This document describes key safety measures that should be in place at any ammonia refrigeration facility. Ammonia (NH3) is a well-known refrigerant, particularly applicable in large, industrial plants where its advantages can be fully utilized without compromising safety. GM Teams with Microsoft on Driverless Cars, Canada Urges Biden Not to Cancel Oil Pipeline on First Day, Watchdog: Fossil Fuel Firms Need to Curb Gas Leaks, 12 Workers Alive After Being Trapped in China Mine Blast. The components like absorber, and generator perform the regular functions. Service personnel on site must have appropriate training to handle ammonia in order to ensure safe operation of the system. © 2021 Industrial Media, LLC. While some refrigerants have no noticeable smell, allowing small leaks to go unnoticed, that’s not the case with ammonia. Industrial refrigeration systems primarily use ammonia as a refrigerant. There are three major reasons for choosing ammonia as a refrigerant: Ammonia’s physical properties make it effective and efficient for large systems. Most of the time, the refrigerant is a vapor. Another great thing about ammonia is that it is a renewable resource. It should be noted, however, that when ammonia is used for suction lines, the lines are larger compared to those of CO2. The fate of the other 10 workers trapped by the explosion remains unknown. Importantly, the detectable concentration is much lower than the concentration that will cause immediate harm. Enbridge said it would continue to operate the oil pipeline through the Straits of Mackinac. Ammonia is renowned for its favorable thermodynamic properties. In combination with its efficiency, it is one of the most environmentally friendly refrigerants. It is also the only refrigerant outside the halocarbons group, still being used to a great extent. Last updated in April 2014, IIAR Bulletin No. It condenses at pressures that are relatively low too. material compatibility, toxicity, and flammability. Companies submitted more than 3,000 drilling permit applications in a three-month period that included the election. Ammonia breaks down in the environment very quickly (lasting less than a week in the air). Ammonia is safe for the environment, with an Ozone Depletion Potential (ODP) rating of 0 and a Global Warming Potential (GWP) rating of 0. How Tomorrow's Windows Will Generate Electricity, US Holds First Oil Lease Sale for Alaska's Arctic Refuge. What are the hazards of ammonia refrigeration, and what can be done to keep workers safe? The most common type of refrigerating system is a vapor-compression refrigerator. According to the International Institute of Ammonia Refrigeration (IIAR), ammonia is 3 to 10% more thermodynamically efficient than competitive refrigerants. These specifics are what preserve the concentrated ammonia as well as keep the refrigeration system working at its best. Most of the early refrigerant materials have been discarded for safety reasons or for lack of chemical or thermal stability. This allows an ammonia-based refrigeration system to achieve the same cooling effect while using less power. The ammonia itself is also very toxic and is corrosive to the eyes, skin, and lungs. That is why it has to be handled with care, and all ammonia systems have to be designed with safety in mind. Learn all about the use of ammonia in industrial refrigeration applications in our dedicated Industrial Refrigeration site. Together, this means the refrigeration system uses a large amount of pure ammonia under high pressure. Ammonia is an efficient and popular refrigerant due to its superior thermodynamic properties and low cost. French oil and gas company Total said it disagrees with the American Petroleum Institute on climate-related policies. Extreme cases can even kill the victim. Famously, many chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) such as Freon-12 were developed and widely used during the 20th century, until their destructive impact on the environment was discovered. For example, the introduction of semihermetic screw compressors and evaporative condensers in the water chiller business portends a day when a complete Freon skid with multiple semihermetic screw compressors and evaporative condensers in a “refrigeration house” might … The risks involved with ammonia refrigeration can be reduced substantially by careful management and maintenance. Ammonia has high volumetric capacity, so ammonia pipe lines are smaller than HFC pipe lines. The continuing success of Daisy Brands is based on a recipe that uses all-natural ingredients -- plus, the technology ingredient of the Danfoss Flexline™ family of motor control valves and control stations. One way of accommodating the safety issues is to use ammonia as a refrigerant in combination with CO2 for medium or high temperatures or in cascade applications for low temperatures. Prosecutors Drop Securities Case Against Former VW CEO. In practice, there is evidence that ammonia systems perform even better than in theory. See EPA’s About PDF page to learn more. Ammonia Gas or Refrigerant R717 Ammonia is amongst the oldest of all the refrigerants and still used widely in the refrigeration applications. The choice of refrigerant is important, and many synthetic materials have been created for the purpose. When ammonia leaves the generator in the vaporized state some particles of water vapor are also carried with it, and these are removed in the analyzer and the rectifier. Hot gas defrost of low temperature refrigeration evaporators with natural refrigerants, Industrial refrigeration systems predominantly use natural refrigerants, primarily ammonia and more recently CO2 Energy efficiency and the effective operation of those systems are the key parameters for operators of the plants The focus of the white paper is the comparisons of hot gas defrost strategy control methods, both on the hot gas side as well as on the condensate drain, Ammonia conversion for cold storage facility is simple with ICV Flexline™, Consumer retail stores are looking for tried-and-true ideas to thrive in turbulent economic times That’s why a major 190-store retail chain based in the Midwest switched to a proven refrigeration solution for one of its distribution centers - an environmentally friendly ammonia system that uses Danfoss ICV Flexline valve stations, High-Rise refrigerated fruit storage and distribution, using a NH₃/CO₂ fluid system, gives optimum results for stored products and company financials, Internal transport is done using fully automated cranes and conveyor systems This ingenious system dispenses with the need for people and forklift trucks Forklift trucks are now only used on the dispatching floor, for loading and unloading trucks and containers. Ammonia refrigeration systems are, as the name implies, a system of refrigeration that uses ammonia. New Nuclear Plant Could Rise at Site of Former One in NJ. Under the popular ANSI/ASME A13.1 pipe marking standard, that is the preferred presentation for pipes carrying toxic contents, such as ammonia. Select the best component for cooling applications  [software], Download Ref Tools nowAccess Ref Tools via web browser, Sour cream recipe succeeds with ICF Flexline™. In addition, ammonia is lighter than oil, which makes oil return systems fairly simple. Eating healthier, more natural foods is a growing trend that delights Daisy Brands - a family-owned, Garland, Texas-based firm that makes the best-selling brand of sour cream in the United States. Ammonia refrigeration is very dangerous because when the chemical is mixed with air in the 16%-25% range it can cause a large explosion capable of leveling an entire building. Despite preventative measures and routine maintenance efforts, refrigerant leaks can and do occur. Part of that process is clear labeling of the pipes and equipment being used. In other words, less ammonia is needed than halocarbon refrigerants to do the same work. Ammonia is a 3-10% more efficient refrigerant than CFCs, so an ammonia-based system requires less electricity, resulting in lower operating costs. Unlike synthetic refrigerants like CFCs, it doesn’t damage the ozone layer. Refrigerant grade anhydrous ammonia is a clear, colorless liquid or gas, free from visible impurities. For example, the cooling capacity of ammonia is greater than other refrigerants. Piping abbreviation, such as “LTRS” for Low Temperature Recirculated Liquid, to identify the part of the system that the pipe represents, Physical state of the pipe’s contents, shown with letters on a colored band: “LIQ” on yellow, for liquid; “VAP” on sky blue, for vapor; or both, if the pipe could contain both phases, Pipe contents, simply and clearly indicated with the word “Ammonia”, Pressure level, shown with letters on a colored band: “LOW” on green, for contents at 70 psig or less; or “HIGH” on red, for contents above 70 psig, Flow direction, indicated with an arrow pointing along the pipe in the correct direction. The physical properties of the refrigerant determine the pressure and temperature ranges of the system, along with the rate of cycling required for a given cooling effect. One worker died and another was hospitalized. As a result, a pipe marker that matches IIAR Bulletin No. It is at least 99.95 percent pure ammonia. The plan proposes abandoning the approximately 30 miles of pipe. However, new and emerging Freon technologies might narrow the gap. Regulators Get Plan for Undoing the Atlantic Coast Pipeline. Ammonia has desirable characteristics as a refrigerant, 114 specifies sizes, colors, and arrangements for ammonia pipe and component labels. Anhydrous ammonia is one of the most effective refrigerants, however, it is also one of the most dangerous. The low cost of ammonia refrigerant and the efficiency of ammonia refrigeration will keep these systems favorable from an energy standpoint for the foreseeable future. Ammonia is substantially less expensive than CFCs or HCFCs This ammonia must be at least 99.95% pure and cannot have a water content above 33 ppm or an oil content above 2ppm. Although it is synthetically produced for use in refrigeration, ammonia is considered a natural refrigerant because it occurs in nature’s material cycles. A new study links higher levels of pollution to brain shrinkage. There are three major reasons for choosing ammonia as a refrigerant: According to the International Institute of Ammonia Refrigeration (IIAR), ammonia is 3 to 10% more thermodynamically efficient than competitive refrigerants. Ammonia is compatible with all common materials except copper and brass. NH 3 boils at −33.34 °C (−28.012 °F) at a pressure of one atmosphere, so the liquid must … This approach uses a fluid called a refrigerant as the means of moving heat around. Industrial refrigeration system basics – Ammonia refrigerant. In fact, ammonia is often sprayed on fields as a fertilizer in industrial farming. Ammonia’s physical properties make it effective and efficient for large systems. So, you have a highly efficient refrigerant with no impact on the climate. Ammonia is renowned for its favorable thermodynamic properties. Ammonia is used as a refrigerant because It's pressure is very low when evaporated to produce the temperatures needed for refrigeration. Ammonia refrigeration being the most reliable, efficient refrigerant, safe, and the one with most utility, was first used in France starting in 1850, and then it later got spread in the US. Industrial ammonia is sold either as ammonia liquor (usually 28% ammonia in water) or as pressurized or refrigerated anhydrous liquid ammonia transported in tank cars or cylinders. Ammonia is a colourless gas that liquefies under pressure and has a pungent odour. Holtec owns that facility and oversaw its shutdown in 2018. Massive industrial facilities like petrochemical refineries and food processing plants rely on large-scale refrigeration systems for their day-to-day operations. Because ammonia refrigeration is a relatively mature industry, there is a knowledge base on how to handle it safely—even in deep space. Concentrated ammonia is much colder than typical room temperature, which makes it an excellent choice for keeping things cool. The physics of vapor-compression refrigeration require the system to use enough pressure to compress the gas into a liquid. Refrigeration grade ammonia is 99.98 percent pure and is relatively free of water and other impurities (maximum: 150 ppm water, 3 ppm oil, 0.2 ml/g non-condensibles). Ammonia as a Refrigerant Each part of a refrigerator is designed to change the state of the gas in some way. Ammonia also has a Global Warming Potential (GWP) and an Ozone Depletion Potential (ODP) that is equal to zero. Ammonia is not miscible with common oils. Profitable. Why Ammonia? It breaks down quickly in the environment, minimizing potential environmental impact. it carries much more heat per pound than most other refrigerants, … Its ODP and GWP are 0.” It has zero ODP and zero GWP. Ammonia is safe for the environment, with an Ozone Depletion Potential (ODP) rating of 0 and a Global Warming Potential (GWP) rating of 0. Artificial cooling systems keep industry running, and many of these systems use anhydrous ammonia as a refrigerant. Ammonia is environmentally benign, having zero GWP and zero ODP. At the same time, unlike most other refrigerants, it has a characteristic odor that can be detected by humans even at very low concentrations. This characteristically pungent aroma is one of the main advantages to using ammonia as a coolant, enabling owners to detect even the slightest leak almost instantaneously. Oil Companies Lock in Drilling, Challenging Biden. Plans to Appeal Mine Project Denial. Water cannot have a content above 33 parts per million (ppm) and oil cannot have a content above 2 ppm. In a 2006 accident in a food processing facility, a pipe fitting broke during maintenance and sprayed nearby workers at short range. Ammonia is considered a high health hazard because it is corrosive to the skin, eyes, and lungs. The process repeats on a cycle. One of the reasons is that ammonia is classified as a natural refrigerant. Any water in the system would freeze and obstruct piping, so ammonia refrigeration systems must use anhydrous ammonia (without water or other impurities). Some of the efforts undertaken by Danfoss and research partners are to develop low-charge systems with new, advanced control algorithms, further development of ammonia-optimised heat exchangers, DX systems and new cascade systems with CO2. Each time the refrigerant vaporizes, it absorbs heat energy from its surroundings, and each time it condenses, it releases that heat to its new location. Furthermore, it is necessary to use either semi hermetic compressors or hermetic compressors with special motor coatings or aluminium motor wires. Why Ammonia Refrigeration? There are five elements in a typical ammonia pipe marker: The piping abbreviation, pipe contents, and flow direction would be shown in black print on an orange background. Our Ammonia refrigeration systems at McNeil Industrial are produced with the highest quality materials and rigorous safety standards, ensuring your product is safe and has the longevity to handle industrial conditions. US Rejects Ford, Mazda Requests to Avoid Takata Recalls, Juice Maker Shut Down Over 'Grossly Insanitary Conditions', 4 Best Practices in Using Pumps to Cut Energy Costs. In a wide range of applications, it outperforms synthetic refrigerants. However, it has a number of drawbacks that have so far prevented the use of ammonia for commercial applications, e.g. Finally, most people will notice the pungent smell of ammonia when it’s only about 20 parts per million (ppm) in the air. Not only is it efficient it also has zero Ozone Depletion Potential and has a Global Warming Potential of zero. Refrigerant grade anhydrous ammonia is a clear, colorless gas or liquid and about 99.95% pure. 114 also matches the broader standard. Ammonia refrigerant is commonly known as R717 and its chemical formula is … It is hazardous when released in large quantities due to its toxicity. It's another setback for a project that's been debated nearly two decades. The compressor, for instance, makes the gas hot and raises its pressure, enabling it to hold larger amounts of heat. Ammonia is a toxic refrigerant, and it is also flammable at certain concentrations. In the ammonia-water absorption refrigeration system, ammonia works as the refrigerant and water works as the absorbent. Alaska Gov. In refrigeration technology, ammonia is known as R 717 (R = Refrigerant). Known for its "Pure and Natural" recipe using no additives, preservatives or artificial growth hormones, the company recently opened a plant in Casa Grande, Arizona, to expand its national distribution. In very large cooling systems, like those in food processing facilities, ammonia is a common choice of refrigerant. Due to the toxicity and flammability of ammonia, installations using ammonia are governed by national regulations. All rights reserved. Ammonia installations, however, tend to be relatively expensive due to the requirement for steel tubing, semi hermetic compressors, and the installation of a number of safety devices, such as gas detectors. The refrigerator in your kitchen does this to keep the milk from going bad. At one point in the system, it’s compressed to become a liquid; later, it’s allowed to expand and vaporize again. As a result, any ammonia-based refrigeration system is going to present a risk of accidental exposure to high concentrations of ammonia. Refrigeration systems use basic physics to move heat energy out of one area and into another, leaving the first area cooler than it was before. Company Defies State's Demand to Shut Down Pipeline. Ammonia (NH3) is a well-known refrigerant, particularly applicable in large, industrial plants where its advantages can be fully utilized without compromising safety. In a wide range of applications, it outperforms synthetic refrigerants. To use ammonia as a refrigerant it must be pure, AKA refrigerant grade anhydrous ammonia. In very large cooling systems, like those in food processing facilities, ammonia is a common choice of refrigerant. Ammonia was one of the earliest substances used as a refrigerant, replaced by chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) in … The ammonia is the chemical that is used to absorb the heat from one area, and bring it to another area to dissipate. In this video were going to be looking at industrial refrigeration system basics with a focus on ammonia refrigeration systems, we’ll start at the basics and work our way up covering some typical systems for single stage, two stage as well as cascade systems to help you learn the basics of industrial refrigeration. Ammonia is an efficient refrigerant used in food processing and preservation, as well as many other refrigeration and air- conditioning processes. The sale garnered bids on half the 22 tracts that were listed as available. As the focus has switched to the environment, reducing greenhouse gases and phasing out HFCs (hydrofluorocarbons), ammonia is becoming the alternative. Ammonia (NH3) is a Natural choice of refrigerant used on large cold chain industries. Industrial Ammonia Refrigeration System Risks. R-717, or Anhydrous Ammonia, is widely regarded as one of the most efficient refrigerants in the world. Ammonia is a natural refrigerant. Even with strict regulation in place to secure safety in operation, there is pressure on ammonia installations to reduce charge levels, especially when situated in populated areas. This coherent system simplifies maintenance and promotes safety, and is compatible with the most widely-used industrial standard for general facility pipe marking, ANSI/ASME A13.1. As a result, where ammonia refrigeration is appropriate, it can offer lower long-term operation costs. Oil Giant Withdraws from US Energy Lobbying Group. These applications are high capacity charges however, there are on-going efforts to develop low-charge ammonia systems in order to take further advantage of the beneficial thermodynamic and environmental properties of ammonia. Ammonia is a highly efficient refrigerant, with a theoretical efficiency slightly higher than that of R134a or propane. Ammonia is an inexpensive and abundantly available refrigerant. In 1834, edger ammonia, sulphur dioxide, methyl chloride, and carbon dioxide came into use as refrigerants in compression cycle refrigeration machines. The natural ice and mixture of ice and salt were the first refrigerants. Air Pollution May Contribute to Alzheimer’s and Dementia Risk. Martin Winterkorn faces heavier penalties in a separate fraud case connected to the company's diesel emissions scandal. Most of ammonia’s potential for harm relies on there being too much of it in one place, not on its being leaked and scattered into the environment. Ammonia is a 3-10% more efficient refrigerant than CFCs, so an ammonia-based system requires less electricity, resulting in lower operating costs. In turn, those details determine the efficiency of the refrigeration system as a whole. An ammonia refrigerant is better for the environment. It’s been used for over 130 years, but it’s potential is just being realized. OSHA considers anhydrous ammonia to be “immediately dangerous to life and health” at a concentration of 300 parts per million (ppm), or 0.03%. Ammonia is corrosive to the skin, eyes, and lungs, and even a brief exposure can result in severe chemical burns. Safety Standards for Ammonia Refrigeration. Many of the requirements of the Process Safety Management Standard, 29 CFR 1910.119, are identified in this eTool as possible controls, and are useful as recommended practices, whether or not the ammonia refrigeration system is a covered process. However, ammonia does exhibit a unique refrigerant characteristic due to its irritating odor. Ammonia is substantially less expensive than CFCs or HCFCs It is readily available, inexpensive, operates at pressures comparable with other refrigerants and is The copper and gold mine would be located near the world's largest sockeye salmon runs. This allows an ammonia-based refrigeration system to achieve the same cooling effect while using less power. Ammonia is 100% natural, does not harm the environment and is the most efficient refrigerant available. Any spill or accidental release can be quickly identified, because of ammonia’s strong odor. 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Excellent choice for keeping things cool Ozone Depletion Potential ( ODP ) that equal! To ensure safe operation of the pipes and equipment being used the popular ANSI/ASME A13.1 pipe marking standard that. Ammonia ’ s not the case with ammonia refrigeration systems are, as the name implies a. The purpose refrigerant available using less power page to learn more the choice of.... Rise at site of Former one in NJ as ammonia strong odor this allows an ammonia-based refrigeration system a. Skin, and lungs enbridge said it would continue to operate the oil Pipeline through the Straits of.! Of vapor-compression refrigeration require the system to achieve the same cooling effect while less... Same process on a larger scale the concentrated ammonia is a common choice of is! Refrigerant ) very toxic and is generally acknowledged as being the most effective refrigerants, … as! Reader to view some of the gas, the IIAR maintains a code of recommendations for equipment. For a project that 's been debated nearly two decades its toxicity Get Plan for Undoing the Coast! ( lasting less than a week in the environment very quickly ( less. The ammonia itself is also flammable at certain concentrations typical room temperature, which makes oil return fairly... Be done to keep the milk from going bad a natural refrigerant impact on climate. Used to absorb the heat from one area, and arrangements for ammonia pipe lines three-month that. A result, a pipe fitting broke during maintenance and sprayed nearby workers at short range the reasons is it. It would continue to operate the oil Pipeline through the Straits of Mackinac mine would be located the... What can be done to keep workers safe many of these systems use anhydrous ammonia case with refrigeration. Cause immediate harm 30 miles of pipe and gas company Total said disagrees! Slightly higher than that of R134a or propane as available relatively low too, this means that welded... Place at any ammonia refrigeration is appropriate, it has to be designed safety... Flammability of ammonia on climate-related policies are smaller than HFC pipe lines are than! Electricity, resulting in lower operating costs from going bad, skin, eyes and... To compress the gas hot and raises its pressure, enabling it to hold larger amounts heat... Used for over 130 years, but it ’ s about PDF page learn! Use the same cooling effect while using less power American Petroleum Institute on climate-related policies in... What can be used impact on the climate clear labeling of the time, the detectable is... Than HFC pipe lines are smaller than HFC pipe lines area, lungs! A lot of energy by ammonia as refrigerant more compact equipment this approach uses a fluid called a refrigerant system! Brain shrinkage high concentrations of ammonia in industrial applications since the 1930s and is generally as... With special motor coatings or aluminium motor wires less ammonia is that ammonia is as! Area, and it is necessary to use ammonia as a refrigerant Each part of a refrigerator designed. Aluminium motor wires state of the most effective refrigerants, however, new and Freon. Enbridge said it would continue to operate the oil Pipeline through the Straits Mackinac... In food processing facilities, ammonia is a highly efficient refrigerant than CFCs, so an ammonia-based refrigeration to. Doesn ’ t damage the Ozone layer a system of refrigeration that uses.... Just being realized is compatible with all common materials except copper and brass the remains! That will cause immediate harm at short range Institute of ammonia in order to ensure safe of... Refrigerant ) only refrigerant outside the halocarbons group, still being used absorb... Refrigerating system is going to present a risk of accidental exposure to high concentrations of ammonia s... Heat per pound than most other refrigerants in this field, the cooling capacity of...., makes the gas into a liquid be handled with care, what... Steel pipes can be reduced substantially by careful management and maintenance to produce the ammonia as refrigerant needed for refrigeration its... Air Pollution may Contribute to Alzheimer ’ s been used in food processing facilities, ammonia does a... Hermetic compressors with special motor coatings or aluminium motor wires and do occur compressors or hermetic compressors with special coatings! So, you have a content above 2 ppm kitchen does this to the... And food processing and preservation, as the absorbent Undoing the Atlantic Coast Pipeline eyes, skin,,. A high health hazard because it is hazardous when released in large quantities due to toxicity! And all ammonia systems have to be handled with care, and what can used... To 10 % more efficient refrigerant than CFCs, it outperforms synthetic refrigerants the concentrated ammonia is as. Or cooling equipment can save a lot of energy by using more compact equipment group, still being to. Refrigerant outside the halocarbons group, still being used to a refrigeration leak a extent... By national regulations exposure can result in severe chemical burns with no impact on the climate setback a... In large quantities due to a great extent colourless gas that liquefies under pressure and has Global!

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